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Assessment of Governance Efficiency

Introduction and Definition


1. Governance

There have been numerous studies conducted on the matter of Governance by various organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank. While the United Nations Economic and Social Communication for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP) defined Governance as “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”, World Bank chooses to define it as “exercise of authority, control, management, power of government”.

For the purpose of this report, we shall define Governance as “provision and delivery of all the services to its clients by a Government through various departments and agencies”. This definition is simpler but consistent with the definitions given earlier. The clients in the above definition refer not just to citizens, but also corporate houses, and other government departments, all of which are recipients of some government service. While it may be argued that Governance includes more than client-services, we have deliberately chosen to limit its scope to define it so because, especially in a democratic set-up, performance of a government and its success largely depends on how efficiently it delivers the services to the clients.

Accenture has previously published a study on the future of public service delivery and identified four structural shifts in public service design and delivery to improve on expenditure, expectations and public service performance:

  1. The shift from standardized services to personalized services

  2. The shift from reactive to insight driven

  3. The shift from public management to public entrepreneurship

  4. The shift from piecemeal efficiency to mission productivity

2. Efficiency

Given the definition of governance above, efficiency deals with efficiency of delivery of services by the Government to its citizens.

Prof. Subhash Bhatnagar of Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, who has worked extensively in the field of governance, identifies two major client-value parameters to evaluate governance. These are:

  1. Cost to the client to access services

  2. Perception by the client of quality of service and governance

While the first parameter is self-explanatory and is essentially objective in nature, the second parameter involves subjective judgment and is therefore difficult to measure directly.

We have tried to expand on the definition of “quality of service” along the following dimensions:

  1. Speed of delivery

  2. Accuracy of delivery

  3. Timeliness of delivery

While Bhatnagar et al. focuses on the cost to the client, it is also important to take into account the cost to the Government in providing services to the citizens. Although one may argue that there may be technology available to reduce client’s cost to a negligible level, such a technology may be very expensive to obtain and financially infeasible for the government. Therefore, cost to the government is a definite constraint and needs to be included in any framework to evaluate efficiency of service delivery.


3. Measuring Governance Efficiency

As discussed earlier, delivering services to clients incurs a certain cost. According to a study done by Accenture, the total cost of public services in India is expected to be ₹22.9 trillion, i.e. 11 percent of the country’s GDP by year 2025. This expenditure includes total public sector expenditure conducted at national and sub–national levels minus the debt-interest payments and unemployment-related payments. It is the amount of funding available to deliver public services as defined by the Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG), which was developed in 1999 by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and published by the United Nations Statistical Division as a standard classifying the purposes of government activities.

By increasing public-sector efficiency by 1.1% every year, India could save up to ₹3.3 trillion in annual expenditure by 2025.

Apart from cost savings, improving efficiency of governance will also increase client satisfaction with the Government.

Marie Besançon in a report for World Peace Foundation suggests that measuring governance efficiency can also enable us to compare performances of governments across nations and would act as an incentive for the governments to improve their performances. She also suggests that governance indicators can enable donor organizations such as USAID, IMF, and World Bank to make better decisions on providing aid to countries who show an improvement in governance.

Another important reason to improve efficiency is to bring public services to reach greater number of people. Governments may face shortage of administrative staff, or may have in place inefficient processes that deprive many of their clients of timely delivery of services.

In May 2013, Government of India admitted that there was a shortfall of around 1,500 Indian Administrative Officers as against total authorized strength of 6,217. This shortfall can cause a significant delay and backlog in provision of services to clients.

To summarize, the parameters along which Governance efficiency may be measured are:

  1. Cost to clients

  2. Cost to government

  3. Speed of delivery

  4. Accuracy of delivery

  5. Timeliness of delivery

These parameters are incorporated in the framework given in the next section.


Governance efficiency evaluation framework


Individual service measurements

The following measurements are the performance indicators of an individual service. These provide insights into the efficiency of delivery of an individual service.


Cost dimension

1. Cost to Government per service transaction

This is defined as the sum of the employee costs and the communication cost. Employee costs is calculated as the product of number of days spent by employees on the transaction, average salary per day, and number of employees involved in delivering the service. Cost of communication is calculated as the product of average cost of each communication and the number of communication exchanges. Communication is defined as movement of data or information from one node (employee or client) to another. This may be accomplished manually, through post, electronically etc.

Cost to Government=Employee costs+Communication costs

Cg=t1m1e1+t2m2e2+t3m3e3+t4m4e4+ceeg+ec

t1, t2, t3, t4: time spent on the service by Class I, II, III, IV employees respectivelym1, m2, m3, m4: average daily salary of Class I, II, III, IV employees respectivelye1, e2, e3, e4: number of Class I, II, III, IV employees respectivelyeg, ec: number of communication exchanges with government departments & clients respectivelyce: average cost of communications


2. Cost to client per service transaction

Cost incurred by a client is calculated as the sum of costs due to income loss, costs due to travel, and costs due to communications. Income loss is calculated as the product of number of hours spent during each visit, number of visits, and average hourly salary. Travel costs are calculated as the product of average travel time per visit, number of visits, and the average cost per travel.

Cost to customer=Income loss costs+Travel costs+Communication costs

Cc=vnvd×vc+vivt+cceed

vn: number of visits to the government departmentsvd: average distance travelled per visit (in km)vc,: average cost of travel (per km)vi: Average income (daily)vt: Average time spent at the departments during each visitcce: Average cost of communicationsed: Number of communication exchanges between the client and government


3. Cost per day of a service

This is calculated as product of the total cost of fulfilling one service request and the total service requests fulfilled in a day. This indicates the total cost incurred in fulfilling all the requests of a service.

Cost per day =No. of requests fulfilled in a day×Cost of fulfilling one service request

Zd=τ×CcCg

τ: Throughput (number of service requests fulfilled in a day)Cc: Cost to client per service Cg,: Cost to government per service


4. Total Cost-ratio of communications per service request

Cost-ratio of communications is calculated as the cost incurred due to communications as a fraction of the total costs incurred in delivering a service request

Cost-ratio of communications=Communication costsTotal costs of service delivery

c =Ceeg+ec+edcceCc+Cg

ce: Average cost of communication for the government departmenteg, ec: Number of communications from the department to other departments and clients respectivelyed: Number of communications from client to the government departmentcce: Cost of communication for the clientCc, Cg: Total cost to client and government respectively

Speed dimension

1. Average time spent in communication exchanges per service request

This is calculated as the difference of average time taken to fulfill a service request and the average time spent by each employee on the service.

Time spent in communications=Time taken for service delivery-time spent by employees

tc=ta-t1+t2+t3+t4

t1, t2, t3, t4: Time spent on the task by Class I, II, III, IV officials respectivelyta: Total time taken for service delivery

2. Total Time-ratio of communications per service request

Time-ratio of communications is calculated as the time incurred in communications as a fraction of the total time taken to deliver a service.

Time-ratio of communications=Time spent in communicationsTime taken for service delivery

t =tcta

tc: Total time spent in communications ta,: Total time taken for service delivery

3. Average number of requests under process in a day

This indicates the number of requests being processed on any given day. This can either be determined through surveys or calculated as the throughput divided by the average time taken to fulfill one service request.

Requests under process in a day=Number of requests fulfilled in a dayTime taken for service delivery

WIPr=ta

τ: Throughput (number of requests fulfilled in a day)ta,: Total time taken for service delivery

4. Length of waiting queue

This is calculated as the difference between average number of requests received every day and the average number of requests fulfilled in one day. When the rate of arrival of new requests is more than the throughput of the system, then the length of the waiting queue keeps increasing continuously.

Waiting queue =Requests received in a day-Requests fulfilled in a day

w=R-τ

τ: Throughput (number of requests fulfilled in a day)R: Requests received in a day

5. Throughput of service delivery

Throughput is defined as the average number of requests for a service being fulfilled in a day. This can either be determined through survey or can be calculated as the product of the average number of number of service requests under process on any given day and the total time taken to fulfill a service request.

Throughput=Requests under process×Time taken for service delivery

τ=WIPrta

WIPr: Number of requests of a service that are under processta,: Total time taken for service delivery

Timeliness dimension

1. Delay criticality of a service

This is calculated as the ratio of the average time taken to fulfill a request over the time recommended to complete the service request.

Delay criticality=average time for service deliveryrecommended time for service delivery

dc=taT

T: Recommended time for service deliveryta,: Total time taken for service delivery

Aggregate-level measurements

The following measurements are the performance indicators of the entire governance system comprising of all services.


Cost dimension

1. Aggregated cost per day

This is calculated as the summation of average cost to government of each individual service weighted by the number of respective requests received in a day. This indicates the total cost incurred by both government and clients together in fulfilling the requests of all services in a day.

Cost per day =i ∈all servicesthroughput of service, i×Cost of fulfilling one request of service, i

Zd=i∈all servicesiCciCgi

τi: Throughput (number of service requests fulfilled in a day) of service, iCci: Cost to client per transaction of service, i Cgi,: Cost to government per transaction of service, i


2. Average cost per service transaction in a day

This indicates the average cost incurred to fulfill any request on a given day. This is calculated as the average of cost of transaction for each service weighted by respective throughput of the services.

Average cost per transaction =i ∈all servicesthroughput of service, i×Cost of fulfilling one request of service, ithroughput of service, i

Zc ∶= i ∈ all servicesiCci+Cgii∈all servicesi

τi: Throughput (number of service requests fulfilled in a day) of service, iCci: Cost to client per transaction of service, i Cgi,: Cost to government per transaction of service, i


3. Total Cost-ratio of communications per service request

Cost-ratio of communications is calculated as the cost incurred due to communications as a fraction of the total costs incurred in delivering a service request.

Cost-ratio of communications=Communication costsTotal costs of service delivery

c =i∈all servicesCeiegi+eci+edicceii∈all servicesCci+Cgi

ce: Average cost of communication for the government departmenteg, ec: Number of communications from the department to other departments and clients respectivelyed: Number of communications from client to the government departmentcce: Cost of communication for the clientCc, Cg: Total cost to client and government respectively


Speed dimension

1. Total Time-ratio of communications per service request

Time-ratio of communications is calculated as the summation of time incurred in communications as a fraction of the total time taken to deliver a service for each service.

Time-ratio of communications=i∈all servicesTime spent in communications for service, ii∈all servicesTime taken for service deliveryfor service, i

t=i∈all servicestcii∈all servicestai

tci: Total time spent in communications for service, itai,: Total time taken to fulfill one request for service, i


2. Average time per service transaction in a day

This indicates the average time taken to fulfill any request on a given day. This is calculated as the average of time to fulfill a request for each service weighted by respective throughput of the services.

Average time per transaction =i ∈all servicesthroughput of service, i×time taken for delivery of service, ithroughput of service, i

Zc ∶= i ∈ all servicesitaii∈all servicesi

τi: Throughput (number of service requests fulfilled in a day) of service, itai: Total time to fulfill one request for service, i


3. Average number of requests under process in a day

This indicates the number of requests being processed on any given day. This is calculated as the summation of average number of requests under process for each service.

Requests under process in a day=i∈all servicesRequests under process in a day for service, i

WIPr=i∈all servicesWIPri

WIPri: Average number of requests under process for service, i


4. Aggregated length of waiting queue

This is calculated as the summation of waiting queues for all the services.

Waiting queue =i∈all serviceswaiting queue for service, i

w=i∈all serviceswi

wi: Length of waiting queue for service, i


5. Aggregated throughput of service delivery

Throughput is defined as the average number of requests for a service being fulfilled in a day. This can either be determined through survey or can be calculated as the product of the average number of number of service requests under process on any given day and the total time taken to fulfill a service request.

Throughput=i∈all servicesThroughput of service, i

τ=i∈all servicesi

τi: Throughput of service, i


Timeliness dimension

1. Overall delay criticality

This is calculated as the ratio of the summation of time taken for each service weighted by their respective throughput and the summation of the respective recommended time for each service weighted by the respective throughput.

Delay criticality=i∈all servicesaverage time for delivery of service, i ×throughput of service, ii∈all servicesrecommended time for delivery of service, i×throughput of service, i

dc=i∈all servicestaiii∈all servicesTii

τi: Throughput of service, iTi: Recommended time for delivery of service, itai: Actual time for delivery of service, i

Note:

  1. For more information on what each of the symbols mean in the equations above, please refer to appendix


Improving Governance efficiency


Delay Criticality

While it is natural that fulfillment of some services may get delayed, it is equally important to keep the delay to levels that don’t critically add to the Government’s or client’s cost, or affect the perception of Governance.

Delay Criticality

For instance, if there was an hour-long delay in issuance of a passport that, according to Government’s directive, should not take more than 45 days, then the delay doesn’t critically add to the costs, while if there is a similar delay in the vaccination of children that, as per the Government’s recommendation, should take not more than 2 hours, then the additional cost to the client due to the delay assumes critical proportions.

A high delay criticality also indicates the possibility of a substantial backlog in fulfilling service requests and needs urgent course-correction in order to ensure that service is provided to all in a timely and efficient fashion.

Cost-time efficiency matrix

Cost / dayThe first framework is the cost-time efficiency matrix. Cost efficiency is measured by the cost incurred per day to deliver a services, while time efficiency is measured by the service’s delay criticality.

Low cost per day indicates that more requests for the service can be fulfilled for every rupee spent by the Government and public. It indicates that processes are optimized, that there resources are optimally employed by the Government.

Low delay criticality, on the other hand, indicates that that requests for a service are being fulfilled quickly. It indicates that existing processes are operating at high throughput and have a high capacity to fulfill service requests on time.

In the most ideal case, service delivery should be in the bottom-right quadrant of the matrix, i.e. where service delivery is at low cost per day and low delay criticality.

The top-left indicates that processes to deliver services are highly redundant and sub-optimal. Resources are over-allocated for the work, there is a need to rework the processes to reduce delay and improve speed of delivery of services.

The top-right quadrant indicates that although resources are employed efficiently, they are just not enough to fulfill all the service requests in a timely fashion. This indicates lack of adequate manpower or sub-optimal process designs with long waiting periods. Typically, there is a need to focus on decentralization of operations through single-window counters or self-service kiosks to improve time-efficiency.

The bottom-left quadrant indicates that although services are being delivered in timely fashion, the resources are sub-optimally employed. This indicates high redundancy of resources to deliver services. Typically, there is a need to focus on process rationalization and automation to eliminate redundancy and duplication of work.

While the above metrics are useful in comparing various services within a governance system, the same can be used to compare various governance systems too where each system provides a number of services. In addition to the above metrics, average cost per service and average time per service can also be used to compare different governance systems along cost and time-efficiency dimensions.


Communication Contribution Matrix

Cost contr.

The second framework deals with the cost-ratio of communications to time-ratio of communications. It indicates what proportion of the cost and duration of service delivery is made up of communication exchanges. It provides an insight into how much of a bottleneck is communication between client and government departments, and between different government departments. A high cost-ratio indicates that communications are very expensive while a high time-ratio indicates that communications are very slow and time consuming. The top-left corner of the matrix indicates best communication technology. On the other hand, bottom-right corner indicates an obsolete and expensive communication technology being used.

With advances in modern communication technology, there exists an opportunity to obtain a low communications cost-ratio and time-ratio combination.


Fulfilment capacity

This is a simple measure that indicates whether a system is able to fulfill service requests at the same rate as it receives them.

Fulfillment capacity of a service is measured as the ratio of number of service requests fulfilled in a unit of time to the number of new service requests received in the same time.

ʄi = iRi

Fulfillment capacity of the entire system across all services will be

ʄ = i ϵ all servicesʄi

If fulfilment capacity is less than 1, then it indicates that the system is lagging behind in being able to fulfill all new service requests and new requests are piling up to create a backlog.


Delay vs. Fulfilment matrix

Delay criticality

Fulfillment capacity along with Delay criticality gives a complete picture of how efficiently the service is being delivered. While low fulfilment capacity would invariably lead to high delays over time and hence need to be corrected immediately, there can be high delays even when the service is being delivered at high fulfilment capacity. This is due to a constant lag between the output and the input, i.e., while the service requests are fulfilled at the same rate as it receives new requests, there is an queue of unprocessed requests which causes a constant delay in fulfillment of each request. Such services need a temporary allocation of resources to fulfill the excess unprocessed inventory of requests.

Services that are working at a low fulfillment capacity need critical attention as they will lead to greater delays over time and would lead to a piling up of a large number of unprocessed requests.

The state of high fulfillment capacity and low delay criticality is an ideal state and efforts must be to ensure that all systems reach this state of operation.


Results of survey conducted to assess Governance efficiency

Accenture conducted a survey of clients of government services at various locations in the state of Uttar Pradesh, union of India. The survey covered 4 major districts of Uttar Pradesh – Hardoi, Gazipur, Orai, and Allahabad. Responses were gathered from more than 1500 clients of 50 services across 8 departments. The consumers were asked questions on how much time it had taken their service request to be fulfilled, how many government officials they interacted with, time spent in traveling etc. Based on these inputs, and using the model described earlier, they delay criticality and cost per day of the services were calculated. The analysis below uses data from Hardoi, Orai and Allahabad only since the data obtained from Gazipur survey showed a significant variance from the others and hence was treated as an outlier. The findings of the analysis are presented below:

Figure 1: Cost per day for all services

Figure 1 shows the cost per day of delivery of services for each service. While a large number of services have costs near the median mark, a significant percent of the services are delivered at much higher costs than the median mark.


Figure 2: Delay criticality of all services

Figure 2 illustrates the delay in fulfilling services by the government of Uttar Pradesh. One can observe that there are services that experience delays up to a staggering 250 times than that of the recommended time. With the median delay criticality at only 88% more than recommended time, services with exceptionally large delay criticalities are evidently outliers. The next figure shows the distribution of these services in a cost-time graph.


Figure 3: Distribution of services in a Cost per day – Delay criticality graph

It can be observed that out of 47 services in consideration, only 6 services fall in a category of low delay criticality and low cost per day. Services like issuance of domicile certificates, caste certificates, income certificate, seeds license fall in the aforementioned category as can be seen in the lower left quadrant of the chart in Figure 3. Services such as Application for job card under NREGA, issuance of birth certificate, Sprinkler set distribution, issuance of character certificate fall in the top left quadrant of the chart while services such as distribution of pension, seeds license, issuance of death certificate, and issuance of caste certificate from the social welfare department fall in the bottom right quadrant of the chart.

Refer to appendix for actual values obtained for each service.


Conclusions

Measurement of Governance efficiency can be measured through assessing the efficiency of service delivery. Service delivery can be measured along the dimensions of cost, speed, accuracy, and timeliness.

The proposed framework aims to cover all aspects of service delivery and provide a good indication of the governance efficiency along the dimensions previously described. The same framework was also used to study the efficiency of service delivery in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

There is scope for improvement in a number of services provided by the government of Uttar Pradesh. Approximately 89% of the services that were covered in the survey were in need of improvement in terms of additional resources or better processes or both.


 

Appendix 1

List of sites detailing the Citizens’ charter

  1. http://chandigarhpolice.gov.in/pdf/citizen-charter-timeline.pdf

  2. http://www.epfindia.gov.in/sites/pdf/CitizenCharter.pdf

  3. http://218.248.45.169/download/revenue/revcitizencharter.pdf

  4. http://www.incometaxindia.gov.in/archive/Pressrelease_CITIZENS%20CHARTER_07262010.pdf

  5. http://burdwanmunicipality.gov.in/en/citizen-charter.html

  6. http://darpg.gov.in/darpgwebsite_cms/Document/file/ccfoodorissa.pdf

  7. http://www.bsesdelhi.com/docs/pdf/BRPL_Citizen_s_Charter_English_Final.pdf

  8. http://swsmup.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/citizen_charter_2may12.pdf

  9. http://nrega.nic.in/netnrega/WriteReaddata/Circulars/Operational_guidelines_4thEdition_eng_2013.pdf

  10. http://delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/DoIT_Revenue/revenue/home/right+to+information/citizen+charter

  11. http://cms.tn.gov.in/sites/default/files/documents/socialwelfare_2.pdf

  12. http://www.aponline.gov.in/Apportal/Compendium%20of%20Citizens%20Charters.htm

  13. http://www.agriorissa.org/pdf/citizen_charter_english.pdf

Appendix 2

Glossary of symbols used in equations in Governance Efficiency Assessment Framework

Information categoryData pointSymbolService informationTotal no. of services offered by the GovernmentSTotal no. of services offered to citizensScTotal no. of services offered to business organizationsSbTotal no. of services offered to other government departments and agenciesSgCost information – GovernmentTotal no. of government employees involved in the processE = (e1+e2+e3+e4)Total no. of Class I employees involvede1Total no. of Class II employees involvede2Total no. of Class III employees involvede3Total no. of other employees involvede4Average daily salary of Class I employees involvedm1Average daily salary of Class II employees involvedm2Average daily salary of Class III employees involvedm3Average daily salary of other employees involvedm4Total number of communications sent to other departmentsegTotal number of communications sent to customersecAverage cost of communicationceCost information – clientsAverage number of visits to the departmentsvnAverage distance travelled to visit the departmentsvdAverage cost of travel per kmvcAverage income per hourviAverage time spent (in hours) during a visit to the departmentsvtAverage number of communications sent to departmentsedAverage cost of communicationcceTotal cost to the clientCc=vnvd×vc+vivt+cceedSpeed of deliveryAverage no. of days required to fulfill a service requesttaAverage no. of service requests received in a dayRAverage number of service requests received through agents and middle-men in a dayrmAverage time (in days) spent by Class I employee to fulfill this servicet1Average time (in days) spent by Class II employee to fulfill this servicet2Average time (in days) spent by Class III employee to fulfill this servicet3Average time (in days) spent by Class IV employee to fulfill this servicet4Average time spent in communication exchangestc = ta – (t1 + t2 + t3 + t4)Average number of requests under process in a dayWIPr = τ / ta or determined through surveys Rate of growth of waiting queue (no. requests / day)w = R – τThroughput of service delivery; number of service requests fulfilled in a dayτ = WIPr x ta or determined through surveysTimeliness of deliveryPrescribed time limit to complete fulfilment of service, iTiAverage delay in fulfilling request, idi = tai – TiDelay criticality of a service, i – the ratio of delay over recommended timedci = tai / TiTotal cost to government to deliver a service, iEmployee costs + communication costsCgi = {(t1m1e1i )+ (t2m2e2i )+ (t3m3e3i )+ (t4m4e4i)} + {cei x (egi + eci)}Cost per day of a service, iTotal cost of fulfilling one service x number of requests fulfilled in a dayZdi=iCciCgiAverage cost per service (for all services combined)Summation of average cost over all servicesZc ∶= i ∈ all servicesiCci+Cgii∈all servicesiAverage time of delivery of service (for all services combined)Summation of average time over all servicesZt ∶= i ∈ all servicesitaii∈all servicesiCost-ratio of communicationsCost of communications / total cost of provision of servicec =Ceeg+ec+edcceCc+CgTime-ratio of communicationsTime in exchange of communication / total time taken to deliver a servicet =tcitaiOverall delay criticalityDelay criticality of overall service delivery. Weighted average of delay criticality of each serviceDc ∶= i ∈ all servicesidcii∈all servicesi

Appendix 3

Values for delay criticality and cost per day

ServiceDelay criticalityCost per dayDomicile/Residence certificate0.3₹ 112.87 Residence certificates0.3₹ 176.92 Caste certificate0.3₹ 76.19 Caste certificate – SW0.4₹ 232.41 Pension distribution0.6₹ 214.33 Income certificate0.6₹ 133.48 Seed distribution0.8₹ 133.90 Seeds license0.8₹ 189.23 Death certificate0.9₹ 182.97 License of ration shop1.0₹ 150.95 Load license1.1₹ 169.91 Filing taxes1.3₹ 80.25 Meter change1.3₹ 124.43 Ownership change1.4₹ 130.81 Medical fitness certificates1.4₹ 94.97 New ration card1.5₹ 196.44 Property owner certificates1.5₹ 280.43 Farm equipment distr.1.6₹ 130.91 Electricity disconnection1.6₹ 379.46 Scholarships to SC/ST students1.7₹ 283.82 Storage bins distribution1.7₹ 268.86 Crop insurance1.7₹ 179.91 Senior Citizen ID1.8₹ 259.24 Oldage pension1.9₹ 203.06 Interest-free loans for SSI1.9₹ 287.26 registration fee/stamp duty1.9₹ 169.65 Character verification – Home2.3₹ 271.78 Character certificate2.4₹ 179.17 Sprinkler set distribution2.6₹ 152.26 New electricity connection3.1₹ 258.94 Birth certificate3.3₹ 152.48 Vaccines for children3.8₹ 215.48 Job card under NREGA4.5₹ 168.11 New ration cards – PD5.9₹ 163.70 Land valuation8.9₹ 331.95 Medical OPD9.0₹ 303.47 Inclusion of name in ration card11.0₹ 101.02 Renewal of arms license14.5₹ 339.50 Disabled pension17.5₹ 367.95 Duplicate ration card20.6₹ 145.11 Annapurna scheme29.7₹ 61.12 Change of address in ration card56.7₹ 154.42 Deletion of name in Ration card62.5₹ 204.09 Change of name in Ration card90.2₹ 150.69 Distribution of medicines145.2₹ 874.99 File FIRs268.8₹ 148.73
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